Pregnant Teenagers’ Perception And Access To Focused Ante Natal Care Services in a Ghanaian Government Hospital
Click to view file (PDF)


Pregnant teenagers
antenatal care services


This study was aimed at assessing the perception of pregnant teenagers of focused ante natal care (FANC) and their challenges in accessing care in Suntreso government hospital, Kumasi, Ghana. A cross sectional descriptive survey design was utilized whereby a purposive sampling technique was used to recruit 50 pregnant teenagers who met the inclusion criteria. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was employed to obtain information from the study participants after obtaining due consents. Obtained data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Majority ended at the junior high school level 30(60%); 44(88%) not married; majority 40(80%) started attending FANC in their first trimester; 24(48%) were students; 22(44%) earned 6-10 Ghc a day and 20(40%) of them were responsible for their healthcare. Distance 18(36%) and finance 18(36%) influenced their decision to attend FANC. On the whole, only 22(44%) had good perception of interpersonal care, 18(36%) of staff efficiency, 25(50%) of comfort with care, 34(68%) of information they received, and 21(42%) of service environment. Those with strong family support, married and with higher income had good perception of ANC services. Stressful service environment 46(92%) and dissatisfaction with services rendered rated very high 30(60%) among the challenges faced by pregnant teenagers in accessing FANC services. Short waiting time 50(100%), availability of staff 50(100%) and good healthcare providers’ attitude 40(80%) were rated highest among the respondents’ opinion on measures to improve access to ANC services. The study recommended a user friendly healthcare environment through the provision of a separate space for pregnant teenagers and re-training of care providers with emphasis on care of teenagers among others.

Click to view file (PDF)


Abou-Zahr, C.L. and Wardlaw, T.M. (2003). Antenatal care in developing countries: promises, achievements and missed opportunities: an analysis of trends, levels and differentials, 1990-2001. Geneva: WHO, UNICEF

Alemayehu, T., Haidar, J., and Habte, D. (2010). Utilization of antenatal care services among teenagers in Ethiopia: A cross sectional study. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 24(3).

Al-Hussami, M., Al-Momani, M., Hammad, S., Maharmeh, M., and Darawad, M. (2017). Patients’ perception of the quality of nursing care and related hospital services. Health and Primary Care, 1(2), 1-6.

Ansong-Tornui, J., et al. (2007) Hospital based maternity care in Ghana-Findings of a confidential enquiry into maternal deaths. Ghana Medical Journal. 41(3) 125-132.

Banda, C. L. (2013). Barriers to Utilisation of Focused Antenatal Care among Pregnant Women in Ntchisi District in Malawi. Tampere School of Health Sciences. Public Health: University of Tampere.

Bearinger, L. H., Sieving, R. E., Ferguson, J., and Sharma, V. (2007). Global perspectives on the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents: patterns, prevention, and potential. The lancet, 369(9568), 1220-1231

Birungi, H., and Onyango-Ouma, W. (2006). Acceptability and sustainability of the WHO focused antenatal care package in Kenya.

Bonso, G. L. O. R. I. A. (2015). Assessment of the Quality of Antenatal Care (Anc) Services among Teenage Mothers in the Maamobi District Hospital in Accra (Doctoral dissertation, University of Ghana).

Bosu, W. K., Bell, J., Armar-Klemesu, M., and Tornui, J. (2007). Effect of delivery care user fee exemption policy on institutional maternal deaths in the Central and Volta Regions of Ghana. Ghana medical journal, 41(3).

Brown, H. C., Smith, H. J., Mori, R., and Noma, H. (2015). Giving women their own case notes to carry during pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (10).

Chaibva, C. N. (2008). Factors influencing adolescents’ utilization of Antenatal care services in Bulawayo. Zimbabwe-2009-umkn-dsp01. unisa. ac.

Chaibva, C. N., Roos, J. H., and Ehlers, V. J. (2009). Adolescent mothers' non-utilisation of antenatal care services in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Curationis, 32(3), 14-21.

Chege, J. (2005). Interventions linking gender relations and violence with reproductive health and HIV: rationale, effectiveness and gaps. Gender, Culture and Rights, Agenda Special Focus, 115, 114-123.

Dikmen, Y., and Yılmaz, D. (2016). Patient’s Perceptions of Nursing Care-A Descriptive Study from Turkey. Ann Nurs Pract, 3(3), 1048.

Eyasu, K. H., Adane, A. A., Amdie, F. Z., Getahun, T. B., and Biwota, M. A. (2016). Adult Patients’ Satisfaction with inpatient nursing care and associated factors in an Ethiopian Referral Hospital, Northeast, Ethiopia. nursing care, 10, 11.

Fatusi, A. O., and Hindin, M. J. (2010). Adolescents and youth in developing countries: Health and development issues in context. Journal of adolescence, 33(4), 499-508.

Ghana Health Service/Reproductive and Child Health (2012). Reproductive and Child Health Annual Report.

Ghana Health Service (2005). Reproductive and Child Health unit, Public Health Division. Annual Report 2004. Accra, Ghana.

Ghana. Statistical Service. (2014). 2010 population and housing census report. Ghana Statistical Service.

Eloundou, Enyegue, P.M., Stokes, C.S. (2004) Teen Fertility and Gender Inequality in Education: A Contextual Hypothesis. Demographic Research; 11(11):305-34. University of Ghana

Ghana Districts (2012), “A repository of all districts in the republic Ghana”, available at: (accessed 21 September, 2019).

Gss, G. H. S., and Macro, I. C. F. (2009). Ghana demographic and health survey 2008. Accra, Ghana: Ghana Statistical Service, Ghana Health Service, and ICF Macro.

Gross, K., Alba, S., Glass, T. R., Schellenberg, J. A., and Obrist, B. (2012). Timing of antenatal care for adolescent and adult pregnant women in south-eastern Tanzania. BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 12(1), 16.

Harrison, D., (2008): 'Three ways to reduce teenage pregnancy in South Africa', paper prepared for the HSRC Youth Policy Initiative Roundtable 5: Teenage Pregnancy, Reserve Bank, Pretoria

Irinoye, O.O., Adeyemo, A., and Elujoba, A.A. (2001). Care of women during pregnancy and labour by Traditional Birth Attendants in Ike – Ife, Nigeria. Africa Journal of Nursing and Midwifery 3 (2): 4-18.

James, S., Rall, N., and Strumper, J. (2012).Perception of pregnant teenagers with regards to the antenatal care clinic environment. Crationis, 35(1).

James, S., Van Rooyen, D., and Strumpher, J. (2010). A model for the facilitation of intergenerational reconciliation in teenage pregnancy: a Xhosa perspective. Africa Journal of Nursing and Midwifery, 12(2), 3-13.

Magadi, M. A., Agwanda, A. O., and Obare, F. O. (2007). A comparative analysis of the use of maternal health services between teenagers and older mothers in sub-Saharan Africa: evidence from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Social science & medicine, 64(6), 1311-1325.

Matua, A. G. (2004). Determinants of maternal choice for place of delivery in Ayivu county, Arua district, Uganda. Africa Journal of Nursing and Midwifery, 6(1), 33-38.

Mensa, M., Taye, A., Katene, S., Abera, F., and Ochare, O. (2017). Determinants of Patient Satisfaction Towards Inpatient Nursing Services and its Associated Factors in, Gamo Gofa Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia, April 2017. MOJ Clin Med Case Rep, 7(3), 00205.

Mgbekem, M. A., Nsemo, A. D., Daufa, C. F., Ojong, I. N., Nwakwue, N., & Andrew-Bassey, P. (2020). Nurses’ Role in Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness among Pregnant Women in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. Health, 12(02), 71.

Molla, M., Berhe, A., Shumye, A., and Adama, Y. (2014). Assessment of adult patients’ satisfaction and associated factors with nursing care in Black Lion Hospital, Ethiopia; institutional based cross sectional study, 2012. International Journal of Nursing and Midwifery, 6(4), 49-57.

Muraleeeswaran, R., and Thenuka, M. (2016). Patient’s perceptions regarding quality nursing care in a Sri Lankan Hospital. Imp J Interdiscipl Res.

Naariyoug, S., Poudel, C. K., and Yasuoka, J. (2012) Quality of Antenatal Care Services in the Birim North District of Ghana: Contribution of the Community-Based Health Planning and Services Program. Springer, 1573-6628.

Negash, A. K., Negussie, D., and Demissie, A. F. (2014). Patients’ satisfaction and associated factors with nursing care services in selected hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia. American Journal of Nursing Science, 3(3), 34-42.

Negussie, B. B., Hailu, F. B., and Megenta, A. D. (2018). Knowledge and Practice of Essential Newborn Care and Associated Factors among Nurses and Midwives Working at Health Centers in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia, 2016. J Nurs Care, 7(446), 2167-1168

Nsemo, A. D., and Offiong, D. J. (2016). Knowledge of obstetric danger signs among women of child-bearing age in the rural communities of Cross River State, Nigeria. International Educational Scientific Research Journal, 2, 12.

Nsemo, A. D. (2016). A model of community engagement in the prevention of maternal health complications in rural communities of Cross River State, Nigeria.

Nyarko, P., Birungi, H., Arhinful,D., Odoi-Agyarko, H.,and Deganus, S.(2006).Acceptability and feasibility of introducing the WHO Focused Antenatal care.

Ofosu-Kwarteng, J. (2012), “Healthcare delivery and customer satisfaction in Ghana: a case study of the koforidua regional hospital”, Doctoral Dissertation, Institute of Distance Learning, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Ofore-Adjei, D. (2007). Ghana’s free delivery care policy. Ghana Medical Journal. 41(3): 94-95.

Reynolds, H.W., Wong, E.L, and Tucker, H. (2006). Adolescents’ use of Maternal and Child Health Services in Developing Countries. International Family Planning Perspectives; 23(1):6-16.

Safe Motherhood (2006): Population reference Bureau. (Ghana). Annual Report 2006.

Speizer, I. S., and Bollen, K. A. (2000). How well do perceptions of family planning service quality correspond to objective measures? Evidence from Tanzania. Studies in Family Planning, 31(2), 163-177

Starrs, A. M. (2017). The Trump global gag rule: an attack on US family planning and global health aid. The Lancet, 389(10068), 485-486.

Sellers, P.W., (2006a), Midwifery, vol. 1, Juta, Lansdowne.

Sellers, P.M., (2006b): Midwifery, vol. 2, Juta, Lansdowne.

Teferi, M. (2017). Assessment of adult patients’ perception of nursing care and its contributing factors at ayder referral hospital, Mekelle Ethiopia, JPAM 14: 1–8.

Thaddeus, S., and Maine, D. (1994). Too far to walk: Maternal mortality in context. Social Science & Medicine, 38(8), 1091-1110.

Twayana, S., and Adhikari, R. H. (2015). Patient’s perception regarding nursing care at inpatient department of hospitals in Bhaktapur District. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 5(5), 1-3.

United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund and World Health Organization. (2004). Antenatal care in developing countries: promises, achievements and opportunities: an analysis of trends, levels and differentials. /eddb/antenatal/index2.htm2005/10/03.

UNFPA, W. (2016). UNAIDS,‘Position statement on condoms and the prevention of HIV, other sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy’, 2015.

UNICEF. (2014). State of the world’s children.NY. 32-24

USAID (2007). Focused Antenatal care: providing integrated, individualized care during pregnancy. Washington, DC.

Van Eijk, A. M., Bles, H. M., Odhiambo, F., Ayisi, J. G., Blokland, I. E., Rosen, D. H., and Lindblade, K. A. (2006). Use of antenatal services and delivery care among women in rural western Kenya: a community based survey. Reproductive health, 3(1), 2.

World Health Organization (2006) A process for making strategic choices in health system. Qual care.

World Bank (2013). Better health in Africa; Experience and Lessons learned, Washington DC.

World Bank. (2013). World Bank development indicators. In Antenatal care in developing countries: promises, achievements and missed opportunities: an analysis of trends, levels and differentials, 1990-2001.

WHO The World Health Report (2005). Make Every Mother and Child Count. World Health Organization, Geneva.

World Health Organization. (2016). WHO recommendations on antenatal care for a positive pregnancy experience. World Health Organization.

WHO/UNICEF. (2003) Antenatal care in developing countries: promises, achievements and missed Opportunities: an analysis of trends, levels and differentials, 1990-2001. Geneva: WHO.

World Health Organization. (2003). Antenatal care in developing countries: promises, achievements and missed opportunities: an analysis of trends, levels and differentials, 1990-2001.

World Health Organization. 2001. Advancing Safe Motherhood through Human Rights. Available at health/publications

Woyessa, A. H., and Ahmed, T. H. (2019). Assessment of focused antenatal care utilization and associated factors in Western Oromia, Nekemte, Ethiopia. BMC research notes, 12(1), 277

Yeboah, M. K. (2012). Social support and access to prenatal health services: A study of pregnant teenagers in Cape Coast, Ghana. Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 32, No.1, pp. 68-78 Retrieved from University of Ghana

Zhao, S. H., and Akkadechanunt, T. (2011). Patients perception of quality nursing care in a Chinese Hospital. International Journal of Nursing and Midwifery, 3(9), 145-149.

Ziyani, I. S., King, L. J., and Ehlers, V. J. (2004). Using triangulation of research methods to investigate family planning practice in Swaziland. Africa Journal of Nursing and Midwifery, 6(1), 12-17.

Ziblim, S. D., Yidana, A., and Mohammed, A. R. (2018). Determinants of Antenatal Care Utilization among Adolescent Mothers in the Yendi Municipality of Northern Region, Ghana. Ghana Journal of Geography, 10(1), 78-97

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2020 Array