A Survey of Undiagnosed Hypertension among Market Traders in Suva, Fiji Islands
Click to view file (PDF)


Cardiovascular disease
Fiji Islands
occupational health
market traders


Routine check and optimal control of blood pressure have been recommended to reduce the high cardiovascular disease burden in the Southern Pacific. As demographic profile in the Pacific Island countries continues to transition, the burden of cardiovascular disease is importunately affecting more younger and high stress population. In collaboration with the Healthy Setting Initiative of the Ministry of health, we conducted a survey of blood pressure among market traders in Suva City Central and Nasouri markets of Fiji Islands.  Following ethical approval and informed consent, we obtained socio-demographic data, and measured anthropometric indices and blood pressure of asymptomatic adult market traders of Suva City and Nasouri market using standard procedures.   Participants comprised of 189 traders (52% females); with mean body mass index of 30kg/m2, weight of 82kg and waist circumference of 101cm. Overall, 152(80%) had sub-optimal blood pressure: elevated 23(12%), stage I: 70(37%), stage II: 57(30) and hypertensive crisis 2(1%). Of these, 30(20%) reported being compliant with medication, 62(41%) non-compliant and 60(39%) were previously unaware of their blood pressure status. Percent body fat (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02-1.13) and diastolic blood pressure (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.21-1.48) were independently associated with hypertension. Burden of hypertension is high (80%) among study participants, with 39% of these being undiagnosed. There are issues with suboptimal blood pressure control and non-compliance with medication among study participants. There is need for health education, routine screening and sustainable intervention to reduce this burden among this population

Click to view file (PDF)


Awosan, K. J., M. T. O. Ibrahim, E. Essien, A. A. Yusuf, and A.C. Okolo,. (2014): “Dietary Pattern, Lifestyle, Nutrition Status and Prevalence of Hypertension among Traders in Sokoto Central Market, Sokoto, Nigeria.” International Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 6 (1): 9–17. https://doi.org/10.5897/IJNAM2013.0158.

Bosu, William K. (2015): “The Prevalence, Awareness, and Control of Hypertension among Workers in West Africa: A Systematic Review.” Global Health Action 8 (January). https://doi.org/10.3402/gha.v8.26227.

Jokisalo, E, E Kumpusalo, H Enlund, P Halonen, and J Takala. (2002): “Factors Related to Non-Compliance with Antihypertensive Drug Therapy.” Journal of Human Hypertension, 7.

Linhart, Christine, Isimeli Tukana, Sophia Lin, Richard Taylor, Stephen Morrell, Penina Vatucawaqa, Dianna Magliano, and Paul Zimmet. (2016): “Continued Increases in Hypertension over Three Decades in Fiji, and the Influence of Obesity.” Journal of Hypertension 34 (3): 402–9. https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000000807.

Mendis, S., P. Puska, and B. Norrving. (2011): “Global Atlas on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Control.” Global Atlas on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Control. https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20123402600.

Odugbemi, T. O., A. T. Onajole, and A. O. Osibogun. (2012):. “Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors amongst Traders in an Urban Market in Lagos, Nigeria.” The Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal 19 (1): 1–6.

Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth, Innocent Ijezie Chukwuonye, Nicki Tiffin, Okechukwu Ojoemelam Madukwe, Ugochukwu Uchenna Onyeonoro, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu Umeizudike, and Okechukwu Samuel Ogah. (2013): “Blood Pressure Gradients and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Urban and Rural Populations in Abia State South Eastern Nigeria Using the WHO STEPwise Approach.” Edited by Guoying Wang. PLoS ONE 8 (9): e73403. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073403.

Riley, Leanne, Regina Guthold, Melanie Cowan, Stefan Savin, Lubna Bhatti, Timothy Armstrong, and Ruth Bonita. (2016): “The World Health Organization STEPwise Approach to Noncommunicable Disease Risk-Factor Surveillance: Methods, Challenges, and Opportunities.” American Journal of Public Health 106 (1): 74–78. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2015.302962.

Taylor, Richard, Karen Carter, Shivnay Naidu, Christine Linhart, Syed Azim, Chalapati Rao, and Alan D. Lopez. (2013): “Divergent Mortality Trends by Ethnicity in Fiji.” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 37 (6): 509–15.

Ulasi, Ifeoma I., Chinwuba K. Ijoma, Basden J. C. Onwubere, Ejikeme Arodiwe, Obinna Onodugo, and Christian Okafor. (2011): “High Prevalence and Low Awareness of Hypertension in a Market Population in Enugu, Nigeria.” International Journal of Hypertension 2011: 1–5. https://doi.org/10.4061/2011/869675.


Wang, Philip S, Rhonda L Bohn, Eric Knight, Robert J Glynn, Helen Mogun, and Jerry Avorn. (2002): “Noncompliance with Antihypertensive Medications.” Journal of General Internal Medicine 17 (7): 504–11. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1497.2002.00406.x.

Whelton, Paul K., Robert M. Carey, Wilbert S. Aronow, Donald E. Casey, Karen J. Collins, Cheryl Dennison Himmelfarb, Sondra M. DePalma, et al. (2018): “2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 71 (19): e127–248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2017.11.006

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2020 Array