Comparative effect of daylight restriction and sleep deprivation on the immune and oxidative stress response of male Swiss mice
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Daylight restriction
sleep deprivation
immune system


Circadian rhythms modulate the body’s immune system and subsequent response to infection. This study was designed to compare the effects of two circadian disruptors (daylight-restriction and sleep-deprivation) on the immune response in male Swiss mice.

Mice were divided into group 1 (control; n=10), which were neither daylight-restricted nor sleep-deprived and groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 (n=20/group). 10-animals each from groups 2-5 were daylight-restricted for 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours respectively while the remaining animals per group were sleep-deprived for same time interval. Post-exposure, blood was collected into EDTA-coated bottles for haematology (white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophils and platelet counts) and plain bottles for serum biochemistry (interferon-γ, superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA).

Compared to control, daylight-restricted and sleep-deprived groups had reduced WBC (12-72 hours), neutrophils (12, 48 and 72 hours) and increased lymphocyte (12, 48 and 72 hours), eosinophil (72 hours) and MDA level (12-72 hours). Daylight-restricted groups exhibited reduced platelets and increased interferon-γ levels at 12-72 hours while sleep-deprived had reduced platelets and increased interferon-γ at 48 and 72 hours only. While SOD decreased in daylight-restricted at 12-72 hours, sleep-deprived had increased values at 12-48 hours, and lowered values at 72 hours. Daylight-restricted had increased GSH level at 12-24 hours and reduced at 48-72 hours while values in sleep-deprived groups were decreased from 12-72 hours respectively.


This study suggests that the onset of anti-immune and oxidative stress effects of daylight-restriction is more sudden than that of sleep-deprivation in male Swiss mice.

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